Sibiracy is the plural of the Polish word Sibirak. In general, it refers to Poles who were “resettled” to Siberia. But in the context of today, February 10, it refers to the one or more million Poles who were actively forced from their homes in what had been Poland by the Soviets, beginning in 1940 and continuing into 1941. In the middle of the night, Soviet soldiers rounded up Polish families, gave them a few minutes to gather their possessions (wahtever they could carry) and loaded whole families into packed cattle cars, taking them on a many weeks long journey to Siberia. Once in Siberia, they were herded into crude barracks and put into forced labor. Many died. After the war turned with the German invasion of the Soviet Union, there was a general amnesty given. Maybe 1/5 of the Poles ever made it out of Siberia, some walking a thousand or more miles. Many died on the way. The survivors who endured today are called Sibiracy.

I wrote more about this topic a few years ago here: It still boggles my mind. Over a million people, and so few returned. And even more puzzling, this is not taught in any history books I ever read in school. It’s a mostly forgotten story. But it’s certainly worth telling now, and honoring the memory of all those lives lost, youth stolen from children, families ripped apart, lost opportunities, just tragic, very tragic…..

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To Fry, or Not to Fry…That is the Question!

My mother’s mother’s parents were both from a small village in what was then Galicia, later Poland between the World Wars, and is now Ukraine. My Great-Grandfather was Polish, and my Great-Grandmother was Ruthenian. Since my earliest childhood memories, had pierogi for Christmas Eve dinner every year, and they were always boiled. Yet today if you go to Poland or talk to many other Polish people, even here in the USA, they fry their pierogi before serving them. Why fried? It’s not what I grew up with in my very Polish household.

I guess a better question is, “Why not?”  In truth, I now prefer my pierogi fried, and I think it adds a layer of flavor to them. I always fry mine now. For Wigilia I serve them with sour cream and with fried onions. At other times of the year, I add chopped bacon to the onions. But the question has always puzzled me as to why my mother, her mother (my grandmother), and my mother’s mother (my great-grandmother), only boiled them, and never fried them. I believe the answer is in the regional nature of foods, how dishes, even such widely Slavic dishes like pierogi, change over various regions.

Today if you go to Ukraine, you will be served the Ukrainian version of pierogi, called varenyky. They are in general never fried, only boiled. [They also have a small cousin, pelmeni, which are very small, almost like tortellini, but also boiled only.] I think my great-grandmother simply cooked as the people in her region did, and that’s that they made these little dumplings of goodness (called pierogi in Polish and varenyky in Ukrainian) and boiled them and served them that way. It’s how it was done in that area of the Kresy, the borderlands of Poland. So, in Poland pierogi are usually boiled then fried, but in the eastern areas, varenyky are only boiled. Yet they are basically the same thing. Pierogi, varenyky, basically the same thing.

So, the end result? Well, do what you like with them, call them what you’re comfortable calling them (pierogi, varenyky — also called Pyrohy, Pedehey, or heaven on a plate).  Fry them or not, they are still wonderful. There is no right or wrong, there is only the enjoyment of these wonderful, delightful dumplings that are popular throughout the Slavic world with some variations. Smacznego!

Posted in culture, food, Kresy, My Polish Family | 5 Comments

Ukraine Independence Day

Today is the 25th anniversary of the Independence of modern day Ukraine. The “original” so-called independence of the Soviet controlled Ukrainian’s People Republic was celebrated as January 22, 1918, but when the Soviet Union broke up in the late 1900’s, the Ukraine Parliament issued a new Declaration of Independence from the Soviet Union on August 24, 1991.

I was fortunate that I was visiting Ukraine in 2011 as they celebrated their 20th year of Independence from the heavy hand of the Soviet Union. I was a parade, speaker, flags, balloons, flowers, and many speakers. It was a joyous day, and I managed to celebrate it in two different cities, people gathered all over to celebrate. We saw our first celebration in Chernivtsi, and later in the day we were in Kamieniec Podolski where people were gathered in the park at night, celebrating. Check out those previous blog posts for some pictures as well.

Ukraine’s history is still being written as Russian aggression has been trying to tear her apart, but much of the world has stood strong with Ukraine. And, especially for western Ukraine, her history (and people) are tied inexorably to that of Poland, and much of western Ukraine was at one time Poland. But for today, happy independence day to the people of Ukraine.

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Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38)

Today marks another grim anniversary in the history of Polish people. It was on this day in 1937 that the order was signed, giving the Soviet Secret Police (NKVD) the go-ahead to root out so-called “Polish Spies.” What this really meant was the roundup of all Polish males and their subsequent sentence to death, carried out within days. In all, 139,835 people were arrested and of that, 119,091 were summarily executed. The remaining 24,744 were sentenced to slow death–the labor camps where they died due to exposure, malnutrition, and overwork.

What about the wives and children? The wives were given 5-10 year sentences in labor camps in Siberia, and the young children put in orphanages and raised as Russians with no knowledge of their roots. And what about elderly parents? They were left to fend for themselves, often with nothing. Many subsequently died. The total death count as a result of all of this is estimated to be about 250,000. Their crime? They were Polish, nothing else. The hardest hit areas were of course western Ukraine, on the border with Poland.

When you read about current events in Poland and the Polish desire to remove exiting monuments to the Soviet “liberators” of Poland in World War II, maybe this will help you understand why there is no love lost between Poland and Russia, which continues to this day.

You can read more details about this tragedy here:

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Tomorrow is a day I hate to think about…

Tomorrow is August 1st, 2016, but I will be thinking about what happened 72 years ago, the Warsaw Uprising.

Pamiętam — I remember

70 Years Ago Today

Hard to Believe What Was Happening 69 Year Ago….

Every August 1st…..Warsaw Remembers



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General Władysław Sikorski

Why am I writing about a Polish here, Władysław Sikorski, on what in the United States is a National Holiday, our Independence Day, the Fourth of July?  Well, on this day in history, 04 July 1943, a Pole who fiercely worked to attain and protect Poland’s Independence died, albeit tragically.

Władysław Sikorski (Władysław Sikorski) helped organize and fought in the Polish underground that opposed Russia before World War I. He was a leader in the army that defeated the Soviet Union after World War II–most notably in the Battle of Warsaw–which helped guarantee Poland’s newfound Independence after 127 years of foreign domination. Sikorski held a number of posts in that new government, including Prime Minister.

After Poland was again ripped apart and split by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in the early days of World War II, Sikorski became the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish government in exile, working tirelessly to help secure Poland’s place al a leader among the Allies.

He was tragically killed on 04 July 1943 when his plane crashed on takeoff from Gibraltar. Hi was a leader of the Polish cause and his death was  a severe setback for the cause. No Pole after him had the influence and power he had with the Allies, and to this day some “conspiracy theorists” refuse to believe that his death was an accident, but rather blame the Soviets who coveted (and eventually dominated) Poland in a post-war world.

But on this day so many years ago, another person who fought for Independence died. You can read more about Władysław Sikorski here:

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The Savior of Christendom

I have a special place in my heart for Jan III Sobieski (1629-1696), King of Poland from 1674 until his death in 1696. Perhaps in part this is because I have read all about him in the excellent book “JAN SOBIESKI: The King Who Saved Europe” by Miltiades Varvounis, an excellent read, well worth your time. Perhaps in part it’s because I have visited many of the key places in his life, including his birthplace, Olesko, and visited some of the sites of notable battles in his live, including Chocim and a number of others places. But I will always remember him as the person who “stepped up to the plate,” so to speak. When all of Christian western Europe was threatened by a vastly superior Turkish force that had laid siege to Vienna, it was Jan III Sobieski, a seasoned military commander, who led an army 1/4 the size of the invading Turks, and decisively defeated them at the Battle of Vienna, thus earning, from the Pope, the title, “Savior of Christendom.” To my mind, Jan III Sobieski saved Europe. We need another Jan III Sobieski today. Today I honor his memory, and remember his life and the day he passed, 320 years ago today. I am honored that in 2010, i was able to visit his tomb in Wawel, Kraków. S. + P.

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On this Day in History….

I still mark this day of history as one of sadness and remembrance for me. Life can be very fleeting. Never take anything for granted. On this day, three years ago, my dear friend Jurek (Jerzy) Markiewicz passed away suddenly. To this day I think of him often, and miss our early Thursday morning chats. I miss him dearly, but i cannot imagine how his family misses him as well. I wrote about him shortly after his death on these same pages here in a post titled simply, “I Miss My Polish Friend.” The pain has lessened through the years, but it has not completely gone away. I still miss my friend….

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The Murder of Józef and Wiktoria Ulma

72 years ago today, on March 24, 1944, a terrible crime took place. In front of their six children, aged 2-8, Józef and Wiktoria Ulma were murdered by the German Nazis, each killed with a bullet to the back of the head. Wiktoria was about 9 months pregnant, too. And after that, each of the children was also murdered, executed, a bullet to the head.

What led up to this? In 1942, Józef and Wiktoria Ulma, prominent citizens of the small town of Markowa, gave shelter to two Jewish families, a total of eight Jews, hiding them in their attic. For nearly two years, they were hidden, sheltered, saved from the Nazi machine that was busy rounding up and murdering millions of Polish Jews.

But on that fateful morning of March 24, 1944, time had run out. Given up by an informer, a German patrol surrounded the house and caught all eight Jews. They were each shot in the back of the head. Next, Jóżef and Wiktoria were summarily executed, then each of their children, one by one. A few locals were forced to dig a mass grave and bury them all.

In all the Nazi-occupied territory in World War II, it was only in Poland that the penalty for sheltering a Jew was death, and death to you and your whole family. Thousands of Poles were caught sheltering and helping Jews, and they too were murdered.

You can read more about this horrific crime here:

But that’s not the end of the story. The story of the murder of Józef and Wiktoria Ulma does not end there. The bodies were later exhumed and given a burial in the church cemetery–that’s where they discovered the nearly born seventh child. In 1953, Józef and Wiktoria were recognized as “Righteous Among the Nations” by Yad Vashem. Of all nations so honored, Poland by far has the most people, because Poland by far did the most to help the Jews in World War II, and Poland by far had the most Jewish citizens that were murdered by the Nazis.

In 2004 a stone monument was erected in memory of this horrific crime. And now, in 2016, on March 14, a new museum opened, the Ulma Family Museum of Poles Saving Jews on the site that the Ulma family was murdered. The museum is a testimony to the thousand of brave Poles who gave their lives to save fellow citizens, and also to the thousands who suceeded. You can read more about the museum here:

Never forget…..

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Condemned to Death

It was 76 years ago today, on March 5th, 1940, that about 22,000 people were condemned to death. During April and May of 1940, they were murdered, killed with a shot to the back of the head and buried in mass graves.

Who were they? They were mostly Polish Army officers, along with some other Polish intellectuals–police officers, professors, doctors, lawyers–all the cream of the crop (intelligentsia) of Poland before the Soviet invasion of 1939.

Who did this? 76 years ago today, Joseph Stalin (may he burn in hell forever) signed the order of Lavrentiy Beria, the head of the Soviet Secret Police (NKVD). In subsequent months, this was carried out at several sites, the most notorious of which is in the Katyń forest. Today this “event” is generally known as the Katyń Massacre.

Why did they do this? Russia and the Soviet Union have coveted Poland for centuries. Stalin wanted Poland for his own from before the start of World War II, but he also knew of the zealousness and fierce nationalism of the Poles. By murdering their top level of society, he hoped to quell any rebelliousness. Of course we know that in the long run, this did not work out so well for the Soviet Union, though we must be wary even to this day, as Russia still in her heart covets Poland.

Where can you find out more?

Then ponder this fact: The German Nazi’s uncovered the truth about the Katyń massacre in 1943 and published this for the whole world to know. Roosevelt and Churchill knew what the Soviets had done. Yet they still sacrificed Poland and gave her to Stalin as a “prize” at the Yalta conference. So whenever you think of Roosevelt as some huge hero, think again–the blood of 22,000 Polish Patriots is on his hands as well, as he did nothing to avenge their murder.

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